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Carnegie potash project prospectivity confirmed
Published by David Rowlands, Editorial Assistant , World Fertilizer, Friday, 12 January 2018 10:15
The CJV claims that it is also pleased to present recent geophysics results associated with identifying the potential palaeochannel location and provide an update on other works undertaken on the CCP so far.
The auger holes completed are located on granted tenement E38/2995, which is the eastern tenement of CPP. Assays from this initial programme returned potassium grades of up to 4790 mg/L (equivalent to a SOP grade of 10 674 mg/L). These results are positive and compare favourably with other SOP exploration and development projects in the region.
Brine samples were also collected in order for evaporation and processing bench scale testwork to begin. This work is scheduled to start this month and will take several months to finish.
The CJV has completed an initial geophysics desktop assessment to identify the potential palaeochannel locations and followed up with a field geophysics programme consisting of 123 km of traverses.
The field data has been analysed and interpreted. When combined with publicly available information from other projects to the south, the data has identified the likely continuation of a palaeochannel from Lake Wells extending north through CPP’s E38/2995 tenement. Drilling targets designed to test both the location and depth of the interpreted palaeochannel system have been identified and will be tested throughout the next few months.
Scoping study activities have been underway since 2017 and are progressing to plan. So far, hydrogeological desktop study works have been completed and environmental and regulatory approvals requirements have been identified. The CJV is targeting completion of the scoping study in April this year.
The works completed so far, as well as Carnegie’s extensive area, confirm the project’s potential scale and prospectivity, with positive initial brine assays results and a lake surface footprint that is much larger than other SOP exploration projects in the area.
Alwyn Vorster, the Managing Director of BCI, said: “These results are encouraging and confirm BCI’s original assessment of Carnegie’s potential compared with numerous other Australian SOP exploration projects.
“Carnegie offers multiple technical and commercial synergy points with BCI’s Mardie Salt Project and forms part of BCI’s diversification into agricultural and industrial commodities.”
Brett Hazelden, the Managing Director of Kalium Lakes, added: “The works undertaken to date have benefitted from our significant intellectual property developed, in conjunction with our key consultants, during the past three years.
“The prospectivity of the Carnegie system is now evident and these results confirm its status as a significant second project in our portfolio, although it has received little recognition from the market to date. This project also provides a growth opportunity to expand from our initial development of the Beyondie Sulfate Of Potash Project and will utilise all of the synergies and learnings that go with it.”
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Potassium nitrate as teh main source of potash as macro nutrients to crops, plays an very import role in todays agriculture.
Reasons for using potassium nitrate in a foliar spray
Potassium nitrate can be used for one or more of the following reasons:
To prevent the occurrence of nutrient deficiency before the first deficiency symptoms appear. This is especially the case when foliar analysis shows lower nutritional levels than the desired optimum levels.
To correct nutrient deficiency.
To increase pest and disease resistance.
To promote well-balanced fruit and/or plant growth and development, especially in orchards with physiological disorders.
When to use potassium nitrate in a foliar spray
Potassium nitrate should be used only where there is a recognized need.
Situations that make foliar plant nutrition with KNO3 very beneficial
One or more of the following situations make foliar plant nutrition with KNO3 very beneficial:
When there is a limited nutrient uptake via the root system, caused by:
Damaged roots: diseases, mechanical damage.
Unfavourable soil conditions:
Too wet (water logging, low oxygen content), too cold, too dry.
Nutrient deficiency or excess in the soil.
Fixation (K-fixing clay soil).
Salinization (cation competition).
When peak demand exceeds the nutrient supply via the roots.
In situations when localized within-plant demand may exceed the capacity of within-plant nutrient redistribution
As in the vicinity of large fruit and nut clusters with high localized demand of many nutrients in the fruit.
In the case of limited nutrient mobility, when flowering precedes leaf expansion and thereby limits xylem nutrient transport.
For faster recovery of the leaves after stress caused by night frost.
Recommendations and guidelines for foliar sprayings
Add potassium nitrate when the tank is half filled with water and stir until all potassium nitrate is dissolved.
Do not exceed the maximum dissolution rates of potassium nitrate in water.
The temperature of the dissolution water drops when potassium nitrate is dissolved.
The dissolution time of potassium nitrate can be shortened when the temperature of the dissolution water is increased.
Apply early in the morning or late in the afternoon, when the air humidity is sufficiently high in order to expand the leaf wet period and promote nutrient absorption by the leaf.
Make a jar test to check the compatibility with pesticides.
Make a test with different concentrations of potassium nitrate to assess when leaf burning takes place.
Nutrient uptake is enhanced when the pH of the spray tank solution is slightly acidic (pH 4-5). Therefore, the use of an acidic potassium nitrate for foliar spray is recommended.
pH levels of the final tank mix solution below 4 may provoke scorching.
Table 1 shows crop-specific recommendations for foliar KNO3 sprayings in vegetables, flowers and field crops.
Table 1. Crop-specific recommendations for foliar KNO3 sprayings in vegetables, flowers and field crops.
|Crop||Conc. (%)||Moments of application|
|Carrot||2||Every 2 weeks from carrot root expansion onwards|
|Corn||2-4||2 appl. during filling of grains|
|Cotton||3-7||4 appl. at 10-14 days interval, 1st one at beginning of flowering|
|Cucumber||1-4||2-4 appl. during fruit development of plants|
|Eggplant||1-4||2-4 appl. during fruit development of plants|
|Flowers||0,5-1||3-4 appl. during period of high vegetative growth|
|Onion/garlic||1-3||Apply every 2 weeks from pencil stage until bulb initiation|
|Pepper (Capsicum)||1-4||2-4 appl. from the first flower flush onwards until end of harvest|
|Potatoes||2||2-4 appl., 1st at inflorescence emergence|
|1-2||Weekly preventive sprays when risk of frost|
|Rice||2-4||3 appl., at active tillering, panicle initiation and at the end of flowering|
|Soybean||0,5-2||2 appl. (at R1 and R2 stage)|
|Sugarbeet||2||2-6 appl. from the 6th leaf stage onwards, minimum 2 weeks interval|
|Sugarcane||0,25-1||6 weeks before harvest to improve maturation|
|Sunflower||1||Just before flowering|
|Tea||2-3||8 appl. during the growing season|
|Tobacco||2-4||2-4 appl. during active plant growth|
|Tomatoes||4||2-6 appl., one per week, starting 2 months before harvest|
|Vegetables||1-4||2-4 appl. during active plant growth|
|Wheat||2-4||1 appl. at the beginning of flowering and 2 appl. during filling of grains|
Table 2 shows crop-specific recommendations for foliar KNO3 sprayings in fruits and nut tree crops.
Table 2. Crop-specific recommendations for foliar KNO3 sprayings in fruits and nut tree crops.
|Crop||Conc. (%)||Moments of application|
|Almond||2-4||3-4 appl. at monthly rates after petal fall|
|Avocado||5||2 appl., 1st after full leaf expansion|
|Banana||2||2-6 appl. at 10 day interval (during fruit development)|
|Berries||2||2-4 appl. weekly to promote berry growth, colouring and firmness|
|Cherry||2||2-4 appl. at 10 day interval (during fruit development)|
|Citrus||1-4||1-4 appl. at pre-bloom, post-bloom and during fruit growth|
|Coffee||2||6 appl. at monthly interval, 1st appl. at beginning of berry formation|
|Grapes||1||3-5 appl. starting when shoots are about 15-20 cm long until berry formation|
|Kiwi||1||3-5 appl. starting in spring when shoots are about 15-20 cm long|
|Mango||2-5||3-4 appl. at weekly interval to induce flowering|
|1-2||3 appl., 1st at full flowering, 1 and 2 months after flowering (to reduce fruit drop)|
|Melon||1-2||2-6 sprays from flowering until harvest|
|Nuts||2-5||2-4 appl. during nut growth|
|Olives||2,5-4||6 appl. on a monthly basis from fruit initiation onwards|
|Pineapple||2-6||Each 2 weeks from plant establishment until flowering|
|Pome fruit (apple, pear)||8||To break winter dormancy|
|2||2-4 appl. at 10 day interval (during fruit development)|
|1||To control Psylla Pyri (in combination with insecticide programme)|
|0,5-1||1 appl. 2 weeks before harvest (to prolong shelf life of the fruit)|
|Stone fruits (nectarine, peach)||10||To break winter dormancy|
|1-2||2-4 appl. at 10 day interval (during fruit set and development)|
|0,5-1||1 appl. 2 weeks before harvest (to prolong shelf life of the fruit)|
Potassium nitrate, how to use potassium nitrate
There are four common kinds of straight potash fertilizers:
Each of the major potash sources are soluble in water and will readily dissolve when there is adequate rainfall or irrigation is applied. Under high rainfall or excessive irrigation, potassium can be lost in surface runoff or from the root zone by leaching – especially in permeable soils with a low cation exchange capacity.
Potassium chloride (commonly referred to as Muriate of Potash or MOP) is the most common potassium source used in agriculture, accounting for about 95% of all potash fertilizers used worldwide.
Potash fertilizers other than MOP are used where special crop or soil needs exist.
Potassium sulfate (referred to as Sulfate of Potash or SOP) is used in crops that are sensitive to chloride or fertilizer burn like tobacco, pineapple or avocado, or where sulfur is deficient.
It is used mainly for high value crops, where all three of these nutrients are required. It is also included in many ‘complete’ fertilizer products since it supplies several nutrients. While it is 99.7% water soluble, the rate of solubility is too slow for application in fertigation systems.
Potassium nitrate has application as a potassium source for crops which are highly sensitive to chloride, such as tobacco. It is an oxidising agent and should be handled and stored with care.
Antagonism, synergism, soil elements
Many farmers or land owers meet the same problem, we tested our soil many times and all the data tells us that everything is perfect. But every time we sowing seeds into it, and the result was not satisfactory. So, what is wrong?
The answer is antagonism&synergism function of the elements. Let’s put more details as following picture:
P: K, Cu, Zn, Mo, Si;
NH4+: Ca, Mg, Mo;
K: Ca, Mg, B;
Tomato is an annual flowering fruit fruiting crop, hi high temperature, hi water, hi light, hi phosphorus potassium. Nutrient management of tomato is made up of several stages as base fertilization, flower preparation, flowering, fruiting, color transforming maturing, flower with fruit.
Base fertilization: Generally organic fertilizer or farm fat fermentation finished with the main high-phosphorus fertilizer 8-10KG such as monoammonium or diammonium potassium dihydrogen phosphate can also be used.
Flower preparation: treat with high nitrogen fertilizer, be assisted with 25-10-10 or 30-10-10. Proper temperature of 25-28 centigrade in daytime or 10-15 in the night.
Flowering: Foliar spray boron fertilizer, the ground can be appropriate impulse monopotassium phosphate 2-3KG per acre. This period of daytime temperature to 25-28 degrees, 10-15 degrees at night is appropriate
Fruiting: prefer to high potassium-based, especially like potassium nitrate 13.5-0-46, the ground water flushing can be appropriate to add calcium fertilizer foliage, this stage of the daytime temperature to 25-28 degrees, 10-15 degrees at night is appropriate
Color transforming maturing: This stage mainly in the high potassium category, especially like potassium nitrate 13.5-0-46, the ground water flushing can be applied, the foliage spray monopotassium phosphate to promote the conversion of mature (to Anda phosphate potassium 1:500 ratio spray) This stage during the day temperature to 28-35 degrees, 10-15 degrees at night is appropriate.
Flower with fruit: A crop of fruit after the basic flower in the same time with the ground water flushing fertilization to balance fertilizer and then use high potash fertilizer to follow then repeat again, the foliage in the flower for a long time to add boron, fruit for a long time to add calcium fertilizer. This stage temperature requires 30 degrees to 35 degrees.
Cucumber is the annual flowering fruit fruiting many times. hi high temperature, hi water, hi light, hi nitrate nitrogen, hi potassium, its nutrition management is divided into: base fertilizer period, the first flower, the first flowering, the first Fruit, fruit and fruit in the period.
At the end of fertilizer: the general organic fertilizer or farm fertilizer fermentation with the main high-phosphorus fertilizer 8-10KG such as monoammonium phosphate MAP 12-61-00 or diammonium phosphate DAP 21-53-00, and also monopotassium phosphate MKP 00-52-34.
Flower preparing: mainly use high nitrogen fertilizer in NO3 form, dont use NH4 as a replacement of NO3. The formula can be 25-10-10 or 30-10-10. but the temperature of this period to the 20-25 degrees during the day is appropriate, 10-15 degrees at night is appropriate
Flowering: foliar supplement boron spray, the ground can be appropriate impulse potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3KG per acre. This period of daytime temperature to 25-30 degrees, 10-15 degrees at night is appropriate The
Fruit: fruit to high potassium-based, especially like potassium nitrate 13.5-0-46, ground water flushing is appropriate and spray foliar calcium nutrient.
Flower with fruit the period: after the first result, the flower be with the fruit in the same time, fertilize in balance type flushing and high potassium flushing, and do this in rotation for 2 or 3times, the foliage in time to add boron fertilizer, fruit for a long time to add calcium fertilizer. This period of daytime temperature requirements of 32 degrees to 35 degrees, 10-15 degrees at night is appropriate.
Note: cucumber like PH5.5-7 slightly acidic soil, if the PH below 5.5, it is recommended to use alkaline water fertilizer to soil, and the cultivation process need to pollinate, drop Man, for the first agronomic measures with the best output value
Oil palm trees: tropical crops, like high temperature, no wind and low temperature, etc., for the production of fruit trees, generally three to four years began to fruiting. Its nutrition management is divided into two stages: growing trees and full grown trees.
To growing tree: saplings mainly with high nitrogen-based with phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, the proposed 30-10-10 type of recipe, with 2-3 kg per acre of mono potassium phosphate. Can be once every quarter, each time per acre (12-15 trees) 10-20KG.
To full grown trees: adult tree hi high temperature and humidity, non-resistant non-drought resistance to low temperature (critical point of 15 degrees), prefer potassium, before the flowering recommended 1-2 times high nitrogen fertilizer 30-10-10 (1:500 ratio foliar spray) to promote flower bud differentiation, fruit to high potassium fertilizer, especially like potassium nitrate 13-0-46 or 12-4-40 of the two Recipe, foliage appropriate to add calcium fertilizer; finished fruit to balance fertilizer with potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3KG per acre mainly.
Note: oil palm trees like PH4-6 soil, if the soil acidification, it is recommended to use alkaline water fertilizer to adjust.
monoammonium phosphate fertilzier usage, map fertilizer use ratio
Dissolve product in water on the basis ratio of 1:500-1000 and put in the system.
Apply for tuber and earthnut. Dissolve product in water on the basis ratio of 1:800-1000.